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Label monoclonal antibodies site specifically with ETAC reagents

ETAC and labeling monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies and their small fragments (Fabs, scFv, diabodies etc.) are intriguing objects for creation of protein-based medicines. These proteins can be site-specifically modified with ETAC-dPEG® (“ETAC” abbreviates “Equilibrium Transfer Alkylation Cross-link”; “dPEG®” is the registered trade name for “discrete Poly(Ethylene Glycol)”) reagents. Using ETAC, a three-carbon bridge is formed linking the two cysteine sulfur atoms. The dPEG® attached to the ETAC reduces the protein’s immunogenicity and prevents rapid clearance of the protein from the bloodstream. This, in turn, helps to maintain a desired therapeutic concentration between doses, thereby reducing the risk of loss of efficacy. The structure of ETAC-reagent and generation of the dPEG®-monosulfone which undergoes a site-specific conjugation with a Fab are outlined below in Figure 1. For details, see, for example, “Comparative binding of disulfide-bridged PEG-Fabs”, Bioconjugate Chemistry (2012), 23, 2262-2277; and “Disulfide bridge based PEGylation of proteins”, Advances in Drug Delivery Reviews (2008), 60, 3-12.

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Superior Surface Protection of Gold Nanoparticles With Short-Chain PEG

Surface protection of gold nanoparticles is improved by using short-chain, alcohol-terminated dPEG® linkers rather than (2-mercaptopropanoyl)glycine (tiopronin) or mercapto-undecyl-tetraethyleneglycol, according to research findings from the lab of David E. Cliffel, Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University. Short-chain dPEG®s increase water solubility, are non-toxic, and show no immune response to anti-PEG antibodies at low concentrations.(1)

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Thiol Reactive Crosslinkers for Bioconjugation

Thiol reactive crosslinkers are one of the most common classes of crosslinkers in bioconjugation (1). The popularity of conjugation to a thiol is due in part to its presence in many proteins, but they are not as prevalent as amines, which are another site for conjugation. This will allow for greater control of the conjugation. Even greater control of the conjugation process is afforded if a thiol reactive compound is combined with an amine reactive compound to create a heterobifunctional crosslinker.

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