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m-dPEG®₂₄-DBCO

m-dPEG®₂₄-DBCO

m-dPEG®24-DBCO, product number 10583, is a methoxy-terminated, discrete polyethylene glycol (dPEG®) click chemistry reagent designed for chemical modification of surfaces through strain promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC). From the terminal methyl group to the reactive site on the dibenzylcyclooctyne (DBCO) group, the total molecular length is 96 atoms (92.9 Å). The dPEG® spacer by itself is 74 atoms (95.7 – 96.7 Å).
DBCO was designed for bio-orthogonal click chemistry applications using SPAAC, also known as copper free click chemistry, which was developed by Carolyn Bertozzi and colleagues to avoid the potential toxicity of Cu(I) that is used in Copper(I)-Promoted Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) discovered by K. Barry Sharpless and colleagues. For more information on click chemistry applications, please go to Click Chemistry with dPEG® Reagents. Traditional PEG is a dispersed polymer consisting of an intractable mixture of different chain lengths and molecular weights in a Poisson distribution. In contrast, each of Quanta BioDesign's PEG products consists of a single molecular weight of PEG with a discrete chain length, hence the tradename dPEG®. Since our founding in 1999, Quanta BioDesign has been the world leader in dPEG® research, development, and manufacturing. For more information about our technology, please click here. If you need bulk product in a larger package size than our standard sizes, please contact us for a quote. Our commercial capabilities permit us to manufacture this product at any scale that you need. To see all of our click chemistry products, please click here.

Application References:

  1. Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 17, Chemoselective Ligation; Bioorthogonal Reagents. Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd edition. Academic Press: New York, 2013, pp 757-786, particularly pages 769-775 where click chemistry is discussed. Want to learn more about Greg's book? Click here now for a review of Greg's book and a link to purchase it.
  2. Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 18, PEGylation and Synthetic Polymer Modification. Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd edition. Academic Press: New York, 2013, pp 787-838.
  3. Kolb, H. C.; Finn, M. G.; Sharpless, K. B. Click Chemistry: Diverse Chemical Function from a Few Good Reactions. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2001, 40, 2004-2021.
  4. Kolb, H. C.; Sharpless, K. B. The growing impact of click chemistry on drug discovery. Drug Disc. Today, 2003, 8(24), 1128-1137.
  5. Baskin, J. M.; Bertozzi, C. R. Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry: Covalent Labeling in Living Systems. QSAR & Combinatorial Science 2007, 26(11–12), 1211–1219. https://doi.org/10.1002/qsar.200740086.
  6. Patterson, D. M.; Nazarova, L. A.; Prescher, J. A. Finding the Right (Bioorthogonal) Chemistry. ACS Chem. Biol. 2014, 9(3), 592–605. https://doi.org/10.1021/cb400828a.
  7. Dommerholt, J.; Rutjes, F. P. J. T.; van Delft, F. L. Strain-Promoted 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Cycloalkynes and Organic Azides. Top. Curr. Chem. (Z) 2016, 374(2), 16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41061-016-0016-4
Azido-dPEG®₈-OH

Azido-dPEG®₈-OH

Azido-dPEG®8-OH (Azido-dPEG®8-alcohol), product number 10542, is a click chemistry reagent used to modify surfaces and biomolecules or to crosslink with other surfaces or biomolecules. This product consists of an azide and a terminal hydroxy group separated by a single molecular weight, discrete-length polyethylene glycol (dPEG®) chain. The terminal azide reacts in copper(I)-catalyzed, ruthenium-catalyzed, and strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions (CuAAC, RuAAC, and SPAAC, respectively). If left unmodified, the alcohol group increases the water solubility and hydrodynamic volume of molecules and surfaces to which it is conjugated. Modifying the alcohol with a reactive group such as chloride, tosylate, or mesylate allows Azido-dPEG®8-OH to function as a crosslinker through subsequent chemical manipulations.

Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® Crosslinkers

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) products are widely renowned for the unique chemical and physical properties that they impart to conjugate molecules. These imparted properties include
  • increased hydrodynamic volume;
  • improved water solubility for hydrophobic small molecules and biomolecules;
  • reduced or eliminated hydrophobic and non-specific interactions that lead to background "noise" in diagnostic tests or aggregation and precipitation of biomolecular conjugates; and,
  • reduced or eliminated immunogenicity of large biomolecular conjugates.
Unlike polymeric PEG products, which contain a wide range of PEG chain lengths and molecular weights, Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® products are unique. These are monodispersed PEG products made by careful, step-wise synthesis using synthetic organic chemistry methods. To learn more about our products, please visit the following pages:

What is dPEG®?

Frequently Asked Questions (about dPEG® products)

Using Azido-dPEG®8-OH

As a click chemistry reagent, azido-dPEG®8-OH can participate in CuAAC, RuAAC, and SPAAC reactions. Because Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® products are amphiphilic, these reactions can occur almost equally well in water or organic solvents. Thus, azido-dPEG®8-OH can be used in conjugations with biomolecules where organic solvents may damage the conjugate target. The primary alcohol group on the opposite end of the linker can be used as a neutrally charged functional group. In this function, the alcohol enhances the water solubility of the conjugate molecule. Alternatively, the alcohol group can be functionalized with reactive groups and used to modify the conjugate further.

Azido-dPEG®8-alcohol is available at commercial scale

If you need bulk product in a larger package size than our standard sizes, please contact us for a quote. Our commercial capabilities permit us to manufacture this product at any scale that you need.

Buy It Now!

To get started with your order of Azido-dPEG®8-OH, please click the "Add to Cart" button now.
Azido-dPEG®₄-OH

Azido-dPEG®₄-OH

Azido-dPEG®4-OH (Azido-dPEG®4-alcohol), product number 10541, is a click chemistry reagent used to modify surfaces and biomolecules or to crosslink with other surfaces or biomolecules. This product consists of an azide and a terminal hydroxy group separated by a single molecular weight, discrete-length polyethylene glycol (dPEG®) chain. The terminal azide reacts in copper(I)-catalyzed, ruthenium-catalyzed, and strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions (CuAAC, RuAAC, and SPAAC, respectively). If left unmodified, the alcohol group increases the water solubility and hydrodynamic volume of molecules and surfaces to which it is conjugated. Modifying the alcohol with a reactive group such as chloride, tosylate, or mesylate allows Azido-dPEG®4-OH to function as a crosslinker through subsequent chemical manipulations.

Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® Crosslinkers

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) products are widely renowned for the unique chemical and physical properties that they impart to conjugate molecules. These imparted properties include
  • increased hydrodynamic volume;
  • improved water solubility for hydrophobic small molecules and biomolecules;
  • reduced or eliminated hydrophobic and non-specific interactions that lead to background "noise" in diagnostic tests or aggregation and precipitation of biomolecular conjugates; and,
  • reduced or eliminated immunogenicity of large biomolecular conjugates.
Unlike polymeric PEG products, which contain a wide range of PEG chain lengths and molecular weights, Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® products are unique. These are monodispersed PEG products made by careful, step-wise synthesis using synthetic organic chemistry methods. To learn more about our products, please visit the following pages:

What is dPEG®?

Frequently Asked Questions (about dPEG® products)

Using Azido-dPEG®4-OH

As a click chemistry reagent, azido-dPEG®4-OH can participate in CuAAC, RuAAC, and SPAAC reactions. Because Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® products are amphiphilic, these reactions can occur almost equally well in water or organic solvents. Thus, azido-dPEG®4-OH can be used in conjugations with biomolecules where organic solvents may damage the conjugate target. The primary alcohol group on the opposite end of the linker can be used as a neutrally charged functional group. In this function, the alcohol enhances the water solubility of the conjugate molecule. Alternatively, the alcohol group can be functionalized with reactive groups and used to modify the conjugate further.

Azido-dPEG®4-alcohol is available at commercial scale

If you need bulk product in a larger package size than our standard sizes, please contact us for a quote. Our commercial capabilities permit us to manufacture this product at any scale that you need.

Buy It Now!

To get started with your order of Azido-dPEG®4-OH, please click the "Add to Cart" button now.
Azido-dPEG®₁₂-acid

Azido-dPEG®₁₂-acid

Azido-dPEG®12-acid, product number 10513, is a crosslinking reagent designed primarily for click chemistry. The azide moiety reacts in copper(I)-catalyzed, ruthenium-catalyzed, and strain promoted azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC, RuAAC, and SPAAC, respectively). Alternatively, the azide functions as a masked amine. In this role, the carboxylic acid end of the molecule must couple with an amine to form an amide bond. The azide group is then reduced to a primary amine to permit crosslinking with a carboxylic acid group. A water-soluble, single molecular weight, discrete polyethylene glycol (dPEG®) spacer separates the azide and propionic acid groups. The propanoic acid moiety can be coupled to a primary or secondary amine by an acylation reaction.

Traditional PEGylation Reagents and dPEG® Products

PEGylation is the process of modifying biomolecules and surfaces with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Traditionally, PEG products are non-uniform, disperse polymers comprised of multiple, different chain lengths of PEG, with each chain having a different molecular weight. The stated sizes of conventional PEG products are averages of the various chain lengths and molecular weights of PEG in the polymer mixture. Quanta BioDesign's products consist of discrete chain lengths of PEG. With only one chain length, the product has a single molecular weight. Thus, we name our PEG products "discrete PEG" products, and we sell them under the dPEG® tradename. For more information on Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® technology, please visit our "What is dPEG®?" page. For answers to our most frequently asked questions, please click here.

Click Chemistry and dPEG® Products

From the first report by K. Barry Sharpless and colleagues in 2001, click chemistry has grown consistently in popularity and importance for the development of new chemical structures. The first-reported click chemistry reactions were catalyzed by copper(I) and are known as Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Classical CuAAC chemistry forms a 1,4-disubstituted triazole ring. Ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) operates similarly to CuAAC but gives rise to 1,5-disubstituted triazole rings. Later, copper-free click chemistry (formally known as strain promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, or SPAAC) was developed by Carolyn Bertozzi and colleagues to facilitate click chemistry reactions in living cells without the use of toxic copper salts. For more information, please see Click Chemistry with dPEG® Reagents. {link}

The Carboxylic Acid Group of Azido-dPEG®12-acid

The carboxylic acid group of Azido-dPEG®12-acid can be coupled directly to a free amine using EDC or some other carbodiimide. Also, forming the active ester of the acid using N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) or 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenol (TFP) before reacting with free amines is a useful course of action.

Commercial Scale Production Is Available for Azido-dPEG®12-acid

If you need bulk product in a larger package size than our standard sizes, please contact us for a quote. Our commercial capabilities permit us to manufacture this product at any scale that you need.

Related Products

This product is one of several azido-dPEG®-acid products with varying lengths of dPEG® spacers. Quanta BioDesign also offers a complete line of click chemistry products. The list of these products is here.

Act Now

Stop using conventional click chemistry crosslinkers! You can do better. Our click chemistry crosslinking reagents offer water solubility, improved hydrodynamic volume, no background noise (which means better signal), and no protein precipitation caused by aggregation. Why would you not use something better? For cleaner click chemistry crosslinking, click the "Add to Cart" button now. You will not regret it. Click "Add to Cart" now.

Application References:

  1. Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 3, The Reactions of Bioconjugation. Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd edition. Academic Press: New York, 2013, pp 229-258, especially pages 233-234 (NHS esters) and pages 238-239 (fluorophenyl esters). Want to learn more about Greg's book? Click here now for a review of Greg's book and a link to purchase it.
  2. Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 17, Chemoselective Ligation; Bioorthogonal Reagents. Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd edition. Academic Press: New York, 2013, pp 757-786, particularly pages 769-775 where click chemistry is discussed.
  3. Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 18, PEGylation and Synthetic Polymer Modification. Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd edition. Academic Press: New York, 2013, pp 787-838.
  4. Kolb, H. C.; Finn, M. G.; Sharpless, K. B. Click Chemistry: Diverse Chemical Function from a Few Good Reactions. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2001, 40, 2004-2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3773(20010601)40:11%3C2004::AID-ANIE2004%3E3.0.CO;2-5
  5. Kolb, H. C.; Sharpless, K. B. The growing impact of click chemistry on drug discovery. Drug Disc. Today, 2003, 8(24), 1128-1137. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6446(03)02933-7.
  6. Baskin, J. M.; Bertozzi, C. R. Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry: Covalent Labeling in Living Systems. QSAR & Combinatorial Science 2007, 26(11–12), 1211–1219. https://doi.org/10.1002/qsar.200740086.
  7. Patterson, D. M.; Nazarova, L. A.; Prescher, J. A. Finding the Right (Bioorthogonal) Chemistry. ACS Chem. Biol. 2014, 9(3), 592–605. https://doi.org/10.1021/cb400828a.
  8. Dommerholt, J.; Rutjes, F. P. J. T.; van Delft, F. L. Strain-Promoted 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Cycloalkynes and Organic Azides. Top. Curr. Chem. (Z) 2016, 374(2), 16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41061-016-0016-4.
  9. Johansson, J. R.; Beke-Somfai, T.; Said Stålsmeden, A.; Kann, N. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction: Scope, Mechanism, and Applications. Chem. Rev. 2016, 116(23), 14726–14768. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00466.
Propargyl amine

Propargyl amine

Propargyl amine, product number 10510, is an amine-functionalized, three-carbon, terminal aliphatic alkyne. A non-dPEG® product, propargyl amine (formally, prop-2-yn-1-amine) is an alkynyl partner for Quanta BioDesign's azide-functionalized dPEG®-based click chemistry reagents. Click chemistry using propargyl amine and azides requires catalysis. Copper(I) catalysis leads to the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition product. Ruthenium catalysis forms the 1,5-dipolar cycloaddition product. The terminal amine can be reacted with any of Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® NHS or TFP esters or carboxylic acid products to form any desired product. To see a list of all of our click chemistry products, please click this link.
Propargyl-dPEG®₁-NHS ester

Propargyl-dPEG®₁-NHS ester

TFP_Esters_Art2 Propargyl-dPEG®1-NHS ester, product number 10511, is a crosslinking click chemistry reagent. The alkynyl end of the molecule reacts with azides via copper(I) or ruthenium catalysis to form 1,3- or 1,5-dipolar cycloaddition products, respectively. The NHS ester end of the molecule reacts with primary and secondary amines to form stable amide bonds. Quanta BioDesign offers an extensive selection of azide- and amine-functionalized dPEG® partners for propargyl-dPEG®1-NHS ester. Please browse our catalog {link} and see all the options we offer. More information on click chemistry is available at Click Chemistry with dPEG® Reagents. Quanta BioDesign offers a broad array of click chemistry products. Click this link to see them all.
Azido-dPEG®₃₅-amine

Azido-dPEG®₃₅-amine

Azido-dPEG®35-amine, product number 10526, is a water-soluble, biocompatible product. It can function either as a heterobifunctional click chemistry crosslinker or as a homobifunctional carbonyl-reactive crosslinker. An azide group and an amine group terminate opposite ends of a single molecular weight, discrete polyethylene glycol (dPEG®) chain. Alkynes react with the azido group in copper-catalyzed, ruthenium-catalyzed, and strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions to yield triazoles. Also, the azide group can act as a masked amine that reduces to a primary amine via a suitable reducing agent or participates in a Staudinger ligation using appropriate phosphine derivatives to create a water-soluble conjugate.

dPEG® Technology Makes a Difference in PEGylation

Quanta BioDesign invented discrete PEG technology. We manufacture and sell our products under the dPEG® trade name. Our products provide all of the benefits of conventional PEG linkers and spacers. However, unlike traditional polymer PEGylation reagents, our products have no dispersity. Thus, our products eliminate the analytical difficulties that traditional PEGylation reagents produce. For more information on our dPEG® technology and products, please visit our "What is dPEG®?" page. To see answers to our most frequently asked questions, please click this link.

Using Azido-dPEG®35-amine

The amphiphilic dPEG® product binds up to three molecules of water per oxygen atom in the PEG chain. Because the chain contains thirty-five (35) oxygens, this product is named "dPEG®35". Because of the large number of bonded water molecules along the dPEG® chain, Azido-dPEG®35-amine adds hydrodynamic volume and imparts water solubility to any compound to which it is conjugated. Since the terminal azide group functions in multiple different types of reactions, Azido-dPEG®35-amine can act as either a heterobifunctional or a homobifunctional crosslinking reagent. As a heterobifunctional click chemistry reagent, the azide group reacts with alkynes to form triazoles. The amino terminus of the molecule then can react with carboxylic acids, aldehydes, or ketones to crosslink the conjugate to another molecule. As a homobifunctional crosslinker, the amine end reacts first with carboxylic acids (or their active esters), aldehydes, or ketones, leaving the azide end of the molecule free. The reduction of the azido group with a suitable reducing agent, such as triphenylphosphine, yields a free amine that can be conjugated similarly to the conjugation of the first amine group. Reacting the amine groups with aldehydes or ketones results in Schiff bases. Schiff bases require a reduction to secondary amines for bond stability. Endless possible uses exist for Azido-dPEG®35-amine. How will you utilize its potential?

Commercial Scale Product of Azido-dPEG®35-amine is Available

If you need bulk product in a larger package size than our standard sizes, please contact us for a quote. Our commercial capabilities permit us to manufacture this product at any scale that you need.

Buy Now!

Hydrophobic crosslinkers create more problems than they solve. Traditional disperse polymer PEG crosslinkers add unnecessary analytical complexity to conjugates that incorporate them. Stop using inferior products! Start using single molecular weight dPEG® crosslinkers and discover the dPEG® difference. To get started, click the "Add to Cart" button now and put Azido-dPEG®35-amine in your shopping basket today.
Azido-dPEG®₇-amine

Azido-dPEG®₇-amine

Azido-dPEG®7-amine, product number 10523, is a water-soluble, biocompatible product that reacts either as a heterobifunctional click chemistry crosslinker or as a homobifunctional carbonyl-reactive crosslinker. An azide group and an amine group terminate opposite ends of a single molecular weight, discrete polyethylene glycol (dPEG®) chain. Alkynes react with the azido group in copper-catalyzed, ruthenium-catalyzed, and strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions to yield triazoles. Moreover, the azide group can act as a masked amine that reduces to a primary amine via a suitable reducing agent. Furthermore, Azido-dPEG®7-amine can participate in a Staudinger ligation with appropriate phosphine derivatives to create a water-soluble conjugate.

dPEG® Technology Makes a Difference in PEGylation

Quanta BioDesign invented discrete PEG technology. We manufacture and sell our products under the dPEG® trade name. Our products provide all of the benefits of conventional PEG linkers and spacers. However, unlike traditional polymer PEGylation reagents, our products have no dispersity. Thus, our products eliminate the analytical difficulties that traditional PEGylation reagents produce. For more information on our dPEG® technology and products, please visit our "What is dPEG®?" page. To see answers to our most frequently asked questions, please click this link.

Using Azido-dPEG®7-amine

The amphiphilic dPEG® product binds up to three molecules of water per oxygen atom in the PEG chain. Because the chain contains seven (7) oxygens, this product receives a dPEG®7 designation. Thus, Azido-dPEG®7-amine adds hydrodynamic volume and imparts water solubility to any compound to which it is conjugated. Because the terminal azide group functions in multiple different types of reactions, Azido-dPEG®7-amine can act as either a heterobifunctional or a homobifunctional crosslinking reagent. As a heterobifunctional click chemistry reagent, the azide group reacts with alkynes to form triazoles. The amino terminus of the molecule then can react with carboxylic acids, aldehydes, or ketones to crosslink the conjugate to another molecule. As a homobifunctional crosslinker, the amine end reacts first with carboxylic acids (or their active esters), aldehydes, or ketones, leaving the azide end of the molecule free. The reduction of the azido group with a suitable reducing agent, such as triphenylphosphine, yields a free amine that can be conjugated similarly to the conjugation of the first amine group. Reacting the amine groups with aldehydes or ketones results in Schiff bases. Schiff bases require a reduction to secondary amines for bond stability. The possible uses of Azido-dPEG®7-amine are endless. How do you plan to use it?

Commercial Scale Product of Azido-dPEG®7-amine is Available

If you need bulk product in a larger package size than our standard sizes, please contact us for a quote. Our commercial capabilities permit us to manufacture this product at any scale that you need.

Buy Now!

Hydrophobic crosslinkers create more problems than they solve. Traditional disperse polymer PEG crosslinkers add unnecessary analytical complexity to conjugates that incorporate them. Stop using inferior products! Start using single molecular weight dPEG® crosslinkers and discover the dPEG® difference. To get started, click the "Add to Cart" button now and put Azido-dPEG®7-amine in your shopping basket today.
Azido-dPEG®₂₄-acid

Azido-dPEG®₂₄-acid

Azido-dPEG®24-acid, product number 10514, is a click chemistry reagent. The azide moiety on one end of the molecule can be used for copper(I)-catalyzed click chemistry or copper free click chemistry. Between the azide moiety and the propanoic acid moiety on the other end of the molecule is a single molecular weight, discrete polyethylene glycol (dPEG®) spacer. The propanoic acid moiety can be coupled to a primary or secondary amine through an acylation reaction.
Click chemistry enables rapid, chemoselective, stereospecific reactions between an azide and an alkyne leading to the formation of a triazole ring that joins the two reacted molecules. Since its discovery in 1998 and publication in 2001, click chemistry has grown consistently in popularity and importance for the development of new chemical structures. The first-reported click chemistry reactions were catalyzed by copper(I) and are known as Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Subsequently, copper free click chemistry (formally known as strain promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition, or SPAAC) was developed so as to facilitate click chemistry reactions in living cells without the use of toxic copper salts. For more information, please see Click Chemistry with dPEG® Reagents. Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® products are single molecular weight products. Unlike traditional, polymeric polyethylene glycol (PEG), dPEG® products contain a single molecular weight PEG chain with a discrete chain length. The use of dPEG® instead of traditional polymer PEG allows accurate characterization of conjugates without sacrificing any of the benefits of PEG. To learn more about Quanta BioDesign's dPEG® technology, please see our What is dPEG®? page. To find answers to our frequently asked questions, please click here. Activation of the propanoic acid moiety with an acylating agent enables conjugation of azido-dPEG®24-acid to a primary or secondary amine. Popular acylating agents include such as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS); 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenol (TFP); or 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenol (PFP). Alternatively, 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) or another suitable carbodiimide can be used to couple the acid moiety directly to an amine without prior activation. Quanta BioDesign offers a broad array of click chemistry products. You can find all of them here. If you need bulk product in a larger package size than our standard sizes, please contact us for a quote. Our commercial capabilities permit us to manufacture this product at any scale that you need.

Application References:

  1. Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 17, Chemoselective Ligation; Bioorthogonal Reagents. Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd edition. Academic Press: New York, 2013, pp 757-786, particularly pages 769-775 where click chemistry is discussed. Click here now for a review of Greg's book and a link to purchase it.
  2. Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 18, PEGylation and Synthetic Polymer Modification. Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd edition. Academic Press: New York, 2013, pp 787-838.
  3. Kolb, H. C.; Finn, M. G.; Sharpless, K. B. Click Chemistry: Diverse Chemical Function from a Few Good Reactions. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2001, 40, 2004-2021.
  4. Kolb, H. C.; Sharpless, K. B. The growing impact of click chemistry on drug discovery. Drug Disc. Today, 2003, 8(24), 1128-1137.
  5. Baskin, J. M.; Bertozzi, C. R. Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry: Covalent Labeling in Living Systems. QSAR & Combinatorial Science 2007, 26(11–12), 1211–1219. https://doi.org/10.1002/qsar.200740086.
  6. Patterson, D. M.; Nazarova, L. A.; Prescher, J. A. Finding the Right (Bioorthogonal) Chemistry. ACS Chem. Biol. 2014, 9(3), 592–605. https://doi.org/10.1021/cb400828a.
  7. Dommerholt, J.; Rutjes, F. P. J. T.; van Delft, F. L. Strain-Promoted 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Cycloalkynes and Organic Azides. Top. Curr. Chem. (Z) 2016, 374(2), 16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41061-016-0016-4.
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