ETAC and labeling monoclonal antibodies
Monoclonal antibodies and their small fragments (Fabs, scFv, diabodies etc.) are intriguing objects for creation of protein-based medicines. These proteins can be site-specifically modified with ETAC-dPEG® (“ETAC” abbreviates “Equilibrium Transfer Alkylation Cross-link”; “dPEG®” is the registered trade name for “discrete Poly(Ethylene Glycol)”) reagents. Using ETAC, a three-carbon bridge is formed linking the two cysteine sulfur atoms. The dPEG® attached to the ETAC reduces the protein’s immunogenicity and prevents rapid clearance of the protein from the bloodstream. This, in turn, helps to maintain a desired therapeutic concentration between doses, thereby reducing the risk of loss of efficacy. The structure of ETAC-reagent and generation of the dPEG®-monosulfone which undergoes a site-specific conjugation with a Fab are outlined below in Figure 1. For details, see, for example, “Comparative binding of disulfide-bridged PEG-Fabs”, Bioconjugate Chemistry (2012), 23, 2262-2277; and “Disulfide bridge based PEGylation of proteins”, Advances in Drug Delivery Reviews (2008), 60, 3-12.