MAL-dPEG®₂-TFP ester

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MAL-dPEG®2-TFP ester, product number 10549, is a crosslinking reagent that joins free amines to free thiols (sulfhydryl groups). The sulfhydryl groups react with a maleimido group via a Michael addition reaction. The amines form amide bonds with the crosslinker by nucleophilic substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl (TFP) ester of the terminal propionic acid group. The maleimido and TFP functional groups on the crosslinking compound sit at either end of a short, discrete polyethylene glycol (dPEG®) chain. The single molecular weight dPEG® spacer is 16 atoms (17.3 Å) long.

Crosslinking Reactions

One of the most popular, most useful crosslinking reactions in bioconjugate chemistry[1],[2] is the conjugation of free amines to free thiols. These reactions require heterobifunctional reagents that bridge the two groups. Typical crosslinkers are hydrophobic. Quanta BioDesign’s dPEG® crosslinking products are water-soluble, amphiphilic, single molecular weight PEG compounds with discrete chain lengths.

With conventional hydrophobic crosslinking reagents, aggregation and precipitation of the conjugates occur frequently. These problems do not happen with our water-soluble, non-immunogenic dPEG® crosslinkers. For more information about our dPEG® products, please see our “What is dPEG®?” page. Also, click here for answers to our most frequently asked questions.

TFP Esters are Superior to NHS esters

TFP esters are more stable in aqueous buffers than N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) esters. Moreover, TFP esters have higher reactivity with free amines than NHS esters.[3] NHS esters hydrolyze readily in water or aqueous buffer. As the pH increases, the hydrolysis rate of the NHS ester increases.[4] In 2017, a study by J. Wang, et al., on the performance of fluorophenyl esters concluded, “With regards to PEGylation, the TFP ester performed better than NHS ester.”[5] These superior characteristics of TFP esters have been confirmed by in-house research at Quanta BioDesign.

How to Use MAL-dPEG®2-TFP ester

TFP esters react under the same conditions as NHS esters. However, the optimal pH range for TFP esters (7.5 – 8.0) is slightly higher than for NHS esters (7.0 – 7.5).5 Amide bond formation between the TFP-activated propionic acid group of MAL-dPEG®2-TFP ester and a free amine will be slightly slower at a suboptimal pH compared to the reaction rate within the optimum pH range.

The maleimide end of MAL-dPEG®2-TFP ester, product number 10549, reacts optimally with a sulfhydryl at pH 6.5 – 7.5. Conduct the conjugation at the lowest reasonable pH within this range. Above pH 7.5, free amines compete with free thiols at the maleimide reaction site, which may confound the data. Moreover, at higher pH values, the maleimide ring may open to form unreactive maleamic acid.[6] For details about maleimide-thiol reaction chemistry, please click here.

Uses of MAL-dPEG®2-TFP ester

MAL-dPEG®2-TFP ester, product number 10549, can be used the same way and in the same applications as the equivalent NHS esters. Possible uses for this product include the following:

  • Coating nanoparticle surfaces;
  • Tethering antibodies to atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes;
  • Constructing antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs);
  • Adding flexibility and water solubility to a peptide;
  • Increasing the water solubility and hydrodynamic volume of hydrophobic biomolecules;
  • Building supramolecular constructs; and,
  • Conjugating the TFP ester end of the molecule a liposomal surface and then using the free maleimide end of the molecule to attach a small molecule drug, peptide, or antibody for targeted delivery of a diagnostic or therapeutic package.

How will you use this product?

Bulk Scale Synthesis of MAL-dPEG®2-TFP ester is Available

If you need bulk product in a larger package size than our standard sizes, please contact us for a quote. Our commercial capabilities permit us to manufacture this product at any scale that you need.

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Hydrophobic crosslinkers create more problems than they solve. Traditional disperse polymer PEG crosslinkers add unnecessary analytical complexity to conjugates that incorporate them.

So, stop using inferior products!

Start using single molecular weight dPEG® crosslinkers and discover the dPEG® difference. To get started, please click the “Add to Cart” button now to order MAL-dPEG®2-TFP ester, product number 10549.

Application References:

[1] Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 6, Heterobifunctional Crosslinkers. In Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd ed.; Academic Press: New York, NY, 2013; pp 299–340, specifically page 300. Many scientists engaged in bioconjugation work consider Greg Hermanson’s book to be the definitive reference on the subject. Click here now to read a review of Greg’s book and to purchase it.

[2] Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 18, PEGylation and Synthetic Polymer Modification. In Bioconjugate Techniques, 3rd ed.; Academic Press: New York, NY, 2013; pp 787–838, specifically page 794.

[3] Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 3, The Reactions of Bioconjugation. In Bioconjugate Techniques; Academic Press: New York, NY, 2013; pp 229–258, specifically page 239.

[4] Ibid, page 234.

[5] Wang, J.; Zhang, R.-Y.; Wang, Y.-C.; Chen, X.-Z.; Yin, X.-G.; Du, J.-J.; Lei, Z.; Xin, L.-M.; Gao, X.-F.; Liu, Z.; et al. Polyfluorophenyl Ester-Terminated Homobifunctional Cross-Linkers for Protein Conjugation. Synlett 2017, 28 (15), 1934–1938. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1590974.

[6] Hermanson, G. T. Chapter 6, op. cit., page 304.

        

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